The Eyüp Sultan Mosque is situated in the district of Eyüp on the European side of Istanbul, near the Golden Horn, outside the Walls of Constantinople.

Built in 1458, it was the first mosque constructed by the Ottoman Turks following the Conquest of Constantinople in 1453.

The mosque rises next to the place where Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (Turkish: Eyüp Sultan), the standard-bearer of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, is said to have been buried during the First Arab Siege of Constantinople in the 670s. His tomb is greatly venerated by Muslims, attracting many pilgrims. Some of the personal belongings of Muhammad are preserved in the building that houses the tomb.

The mosque was the traditional site of the coronation ceremony of the Ottoman Sultans, where the new sultan was girt with the Sword of Osman.