Cappadocia's most famous attraction, iis the Göreme Open Air Museum, a complex of medieval painted cave churches carved out by Orthodox monks. In the 4th century,

Cappadocia became known as the "Land of the Three Saints" because of three remarkable theologians who are still collectively known as The Cappadocians: St. Basil the Great, his brother St. Gregory of Nyssa, and St. Gregory of Nazianzus contributed a great deal to Christian doctrine in general and Eastern Orthodox thought in particular. St. Basil was instrumental in developing Christian monasticism, of which these cave churches in his homeland are a product.

The monastic complex at Göremewas carved out and decorated between 900 and 1200.